A control commonly used for positioning a tool within the Cartesian coordinate system (X, Y, Z)
A gantry consists of a boom which is moved in the X-line of the horizontal plane along a rail on the basic structure. A runner mounted on the boom ensures movement in the Y-line of the horizontal plane. Combinations of these movements position the runner within the horizontal control area of the portal control. By means of a further control mounted on the runner, the holder for the tool can be positioned vertically (z). This is also called cascade axes system.
In 2D cutting with, for example, laser, plasma, gas and water, this setup is usually used.
In 3D cutting based on portal systems, there are usually two additional axles mounted on the holder, one of which controls the angle to the horizontal plane and the other rotation about the z axis.
In 3D applications where you have lower tolerance requirements, ordinary industrial robots can often handle the positioning of the tool. There are also special robots with tolerances corresponding to those of the portal control. The positioning in both these cases is achieved by combined movements of the robot's arms.
To increase the working range of robots, these can be combined with a portal control in the horizontal plane.