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Friction stir welding, FSW

Joining process done by rotating a non-consumed tool that creates friction and pressure.

Illustration of Friction stir welding, FSW

The process

The rotary tool [1] is lowered against the workpiece and creates friction, which leads to a temperature increase. This elevated temperature results in the material in the contact surface to soften. The tool and probe [2] is then pressed into the soft material mixing it mechanically. Stirring, with applied pressure, and a longitudinal motion leads to the material to be joined together.

After the process is complete, the tool is raised and a hole is left by the probe.